Medical and Health Science Journal

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Title:
Multiple sclerosis and nutrition: A condensed review
Author:
IL Labuschagne, R Blaauw,
Abstract:
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, inflammatory, neurodegenerative demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS).Inflammation is increased by hyper caloric Western-style diets, typically high in salt, animal fat, red meat, sugar-sweetened drinks, fried food, low in fibre, and lack of physical exercise. An anti-inflammatory dietary regimen, with or without administration of dietary supplements, thus supporting the general trend towards an amelioration of inflammatory status, should be considered. 
Understanding the role of gut microbiota in health and disease can lay the foundation to treat chronic diseases by modifying the composition of gut microbiota through the choice of a correct lifestyle, including dietary habits and possibly probiotic supplementation.
Evidences from experimental, epidemiologic and clinical studies support the potential linkage between poor vitamin D status and the risk of developing MS, as well as, an adverse disease course. Correcting vitamin D status seems plausible in MS patients. 
Keywords:
Multiple sclerosis, diet, nutrition, vitamin D, anti-inflammatory diet
References:
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Margioris, A. N. Fatty acids and postprandial inflammation. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care, 2009; 12: 129-137.

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Hewison M. Vitamin D and the immune system: new perspectives on an old theme. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2010 ; 39(2): 365-379. doi:10.1016/j.ecl.2010.02.010.

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Jahromi SR, Sahraian MA, Togha M, et al. Iranian consensus on use of vitamin D in patients with multiple sclerosis. BMC Neurology (2016) 16:76.

Ascherio A, A, Munger KL, White R, et al. Vitamin D as an early predictor of multiple sclerosis activity and progression. JAMA Neurol 2014;71:306-14.

Yin K, Agrawal DK. Vitamin D and inflammatory diseases. J Inflamm Res 2014;7:69-87.

Riccio P,  Rossano R,  Larocca M. et al. Anti-inflammatory nutritional intervention in patients with relapsing-remitting and primary-progressive multiple sclerosis: A pilot study. Exp Biol Med (Maywood) OnlineFirst, published on January 18, 2016 as doi:10.1177/1535370215618462.

Holmøy T & Øivind Torkildsen Ø. Can vitamin D reduce inflammation in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis?, Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 2016:3, 233-235, DOI: 10.1586/14737175.2016.1146134.

Jiao Z, Fu Y, Fu J, Zhang F, Wang W. 1, 25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 promotes the apoptosis of inflammatory cells in acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: experiment with rats. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2008; 88(33):2350-4. PMID: 9087699.

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Rinaldi AO, Sanseverino I, Purificato C, et al. Increased circulating levels of vitamin D binding protein in MS patients. Toxins. 2015; 7(1):129-37. doi:10.3390/toxins7010129.

Mullin GE. Vitamin A and immunity. Nutr Clin Pract 2011; 26: 495.

Hall JA, et al. The role of retinoic acid intolerance and immunity. Immunity 2011;35:13-22.
Bitarafan S, Saboor-Yaraghi A, Sahraian MA, et al. Impact of Vitamin A Supplementation on Disease Progression in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis. Arch Iran Med. 2015 Jul; 18(7):435-40. doi: 0151807/AIM.008.

Massa, J., O’Reilly, E. J., Munger, K. L., & Ascherio, A. Caffeine and alcohol intakes have no association with risk of multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis, 2015; 19: 53-58.

Hedstro¨m, A. K., Hillert, J., Olsson, T., & Alfredsson, L. Alcohol as a modifiable lifestyle factor affecting multiple sclerosis risk. JAMA Neurology, 2014; 71: 300-305.

Florindo, M. Inflammatory cytokines and physical activity in multiple sclerosis. ISRN Neurology, 151-572. doi: 10.1155/ 2014/151572.

Petschow B,   Dore J, Hibberd P, et al.  Probiotics, prebiotics, and the host microbiome: the science of translation.  Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 2013. ISSN 0077-8923.

Ríos-Covián D, Ruas-Madiedo P, Margolles A, et al.  Intestinal Short Chain Fatty Acids and their Link with Diet and Human Health. Front. Microbiol. 2016; 7:185. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2016.00185

Chassaing B, &Gewirtz A T. Gut microbiota, low-grade inflammation, and metabolic syndrome. Toxicologic Pathology, 2014; 42: 49-53.

Cani PD, & Delzenne NM. The role of the gut microbiota in energy metabolism and metabolic disease. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 2009; 15, 1546-1558.

Wu GD. Chen J, Hoffmann C, et al.  Linking long-term dietary patterns with gut microbial enterotypes. Science, 2011; 334: 105-108.

Tremaroli V & Baừckhed F. Functional interactions between the gut microbiota and host metabolism. Nature, 2012;  489: 242-249.

Panda S, Guarner F, Manichanh C.  Structure and functions of the gut microbiome. Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders - Drug Targets, 2014. PMID: 25022563.

Honda K & Littman DR. The Microbiome in Infectious Disease and Inflammation. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 2012; 30:759-95.

Fleming JO, Isaak A, Lee JE, et al. Probiotic helminth administration in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a phase 1 study. Mult Scler, 2011; 17:743e54.

Kouchaki E , Tamtaji OR, Salami M, et al. Clinical and metabolic response to probiotic supplementation in patients with multiple sclerosis: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Clinical Nutrition ; 2016:  1-5.

Rothhammer V & Quintana FJ. Environmental control of autoimmune inflammation in the central nervous system  RSS Current Opinion in Immunology, 2016-12-01, Volume 43, Pages 46-53.

Lamas B et al.: CARD9 impacts colitis by altering gut microbiota metabolism of tryptophan into aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligands. Nat Med 2016, 22(6):598-605.

Smits LP, Bouter KE, de Vos WM, et al. Therapeutic potential of fecal microbiota transplantation. Gastroenterology. 2013 Nov;145(5):946-53. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2013.08.058. Epub 2013 Sep 7. Review.

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Opperman M. What health professionals should know about omega-3 fatty acid supplements. S Afr J Clin Nutr 2013; 26(2):6-11.

Riccio P, Rosano R, Larocca M. Anti-inflammatory nutritional intervention in patients with relapsing-remitting and primary-progressive multiple sclerosis: A pilot study. Exp Biol Med (Maywood) OnlineFirst, published on January 18, 2016 as doi:10.1177/1535370215618462.

Okada Y, Tsuzuki Y, Ueda T. Trans fatty acids in diets act as a precipitating factor for gut inflammation? Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 2013; 28 (Suppl. 4): 29-32. 

Serhan CN, Dalli J, Colas RA, et al.  Protectins and maresins: New pro-resolving families of mediators in acute inflammation and resolution bioactive metabolome. Biochim Biophys Acta 2015; 1851:397-413. (Review)

Montonen J, Boeing H, Fritsche A , et al. Consumption of red meat and whole-grain bread in relation to biomarkers of obesity, inflammation, glucose metabolism and oxidative stress. European Journal of Nutrition, 2013; 52: 337-345.

Stenson, W. F.  The universe of arachidonic acid metabolites in inflammatory bowel disease: Can we tell the good from the bad? Current Opinion in Gastroenterology, 2014; 30: 347-351.

Williams R, Buchheit C L, Berman N et al. Pathogenic implications of iron accumulation in multiple sclerosis. Journal of Neurochemistry, 2012; 120: 7-25.

Shokryazdan P, Jahromi MF, Navidshad B et al. Effects of prebiotics on immune system and cytokine expression. Review. Med Microbiol Immunol, 2016; DOI 10.1007/s00430-016-0481-y.

Ascherio A, Munger KL, White R, Ko¨chert K, et al. Vitamin D as an early predictor of multiple sclerosis activity and progression. JAMA Neurol 2014; 71:306-14.

Yin, K., & Agrawal, D. K.  Vitamin D and inflammatory diseases. Journal of Inflammation Research, 2014; 7: 69-87.

Salinthone S, Yadav V, Schillace RV, et al. Lipoic acid attenuates inflammation via cAMP and protein kinase A signaling. PLoS One 2010; 5:e13058.

Smolders J, Damoiseaux J, Menheere P. Vitamin D as an immune modulator in multiple sclerosis, a review. Journal of Neuroimmunology, 2008; 194: 7-17.

Pierrot-Deseilligny C. Clinical implications of a possible role of vitamin D in multiple sclerosis. Journal of Neurology, 2009; 256: 1468-1479.

Cantorna MT.  Vitamin D, multiple sclerosis and inflammatory bowel disease. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 2012; 523: 103-106.

Erridge, C., Attina, T., Spickett, C. M., & Webb, D. J.  A high-fat meal induces low-grade endotoxemia: Evidence of a novel mechanism of postprandial inflammation. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2007; 86, 1286-1292.

Ghanim, H., Abuaysheh, S., Sia, C. L., Korzeniewski, K., Thaipisuttikul P, Galvin JE. Use of medical foods and nutritional approaches in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Clin Pract (Lond) [Internet]. 2012 Mar [cited 2015];9(2):199-209. Available from:http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=3556480&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract).

Margioris, A. N.  Fatty acids and postprandial inflammation. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care, 2009; 12: 129-137.

Shivappa N, Hebert JR, Behrooz M, Rashidkhani B. Dietary Inflammatory Index and Risk of Multiple Sclerosis in a Case-Control Study from Iran. Neuroepidemiology. 2016; 47(1):26-31. doi: 10.1159/000445874. Epub 2016 Jul 1.

Cheng G, Zhang X, Gao D, Jiang X, Dong W. Resveratrol inhibits MMP- 9 expression by up-regulating PPAR alpha expression in an oxygen glucose deprivation-exposed neuron model. Neurosci Lett 2009;451:105-8.

Wang, S., Moustaid-Moussa, N., Chen, L., et al. Novel insights of dietary polyphenols and obesity. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 2014; 25(1): 1-18. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2013.09.001.

Wu C, Yosef N, Thalhamer T, et al.  Induction of pathogenic TH17 cells by inducible salt-sensing kinase SGK1. Nature, 2013; 496: 513-517.

Kleinewietfeld M, Manzel A, Titze J, et al.  Sodium chloride drives autoimmune disease by the induction of pathogenic TH17 cells. Nature, 2013;  496: 518-522.

Hedstro¨m, A. K., Olsson, T., & Alfredsson, L. High body mass index before age 20 is associated with increased risk for multiple sclerosis in both men and women. Multiple Sclerosis, 2012; 18: 1334-1336.

Cheng G, Zhang X, Gao D, Jiang X, Dong W. Resveratrol inhibits MMP- 9 expression by up-regulating PPAR alpha expression in an oxygen glucose deprivation-exposed neuron model. Neurosci Lett 2009; 451:105-8.

Das S, Das DK. Anti-inflammatory responses of resveratrol. Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets 2007; 6:168-73.

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Medical and Health Science Journal (MHSJ) is online peer-reviewed research journal irregularly issued since 2010. Journal publishes selected high-quality papers with theoretical or applied approaches, focusing on different phases of medical and health research; medical and health production and management; discovering new medicines, new technologies and new ways to manage human health.

e-ISSN (online): 1804-5014

ISSN (print): 1804-1884

OPEN ACCESS ONLINE JOURNAL

Aims and scope

Medical and Health Science Journal (MHSJ) is an international peer-reviewed research journal. Journal welcomes papers with theoretical or applied approaches, focusing on different phases of medical and health research; medical and health production and management; discovering new medicines, new technologies and new ways to manage human health. Research papers can represent a broad range of medical and health-related sciences including biochemistry, epidemiology, genetics, pharmacology, endocrinology, biomedical engineering, clinical laboratory sciences, physiotherapy, and psychology. Given publications should have research character and must be based on principles of scientific and a professional etiquette. The final decision on inclusion of paper will be made by Editorial Board. Editorial Board reserves its right to make technical and scientific editing. In case of not accepting the Board does not provide reviews and comments but resolution on publication.

Profile

Open access model

MHSJ belongs to those research periodicals that stick to open access model. The journal follows funding model that does not charge readers or their institutions for electronic access. In other words, we provide to readers the free online access to read and download scientific articles. This model provides a greater reach of interested readers to the published articles.

In the beginning, all volumes appear first as a list with names of articles and authors. At this stage, the articles can have relevant abstracts and keywords, but not a pdf documents in a final version. In this phase, papers were only selected and are pending for review and other editorial procedures. Articles in pdf are available for download only after final updating - when they already passed the whole editorial process and are agreed with the authors. When this process end, the link becomes active and pdf available for download.

Model of peer-review procedures

All articles to MHSJ undergo screening and followed with the peer-reviewing process. After initial screening, the titles and abstracts of the articles, which receive the positive evaluation, will be published online. Every article proceeds single-blind peer-review analysis by editorial and external experts. This model is preferred by the most medical journals. Reviewers should evaluate the quality of an article based both on established criteria and own views of experts. A reviewer is expected to fill the review form and send to the editorial department.

Important note for authors: Until the volume 14 (issue 3-4), the journal was being published equally in electronic and hard print formats. Since that volume, the main publication format is electronic/online.

Editors

Publisher

Prague Development Center, Czech Republic

EDITORIAL BOARD

Content Editor

Merim Grossley, Ph.D., MBA, U.S.A.

Valentina Divocha, State Medical University, Ukraine

Associate Editors

Nina Khachiyants, Geriatric Psychiatrist/Researcher, U.S.A., Virginia Tech-Carilion Clinic/Carilion School of Medicine

Mgr. Ing. Pavel Král, Charles University, Czech RepublicIng.

Ondřej Lešetický, University of Economics in Prague,  Department of Medical Services, Czech Republic

Assistant Editor

Michel Manika Muteya, The University of Lubumbashi (UNILU), Congo

Advisory Council

Jan Flattum-Riemers, M.D., American Academy of Family Medicine, U.S.A.Jitka Soukupova, M.D., Science and Research, Thomayer Hospital, Czech Republic

Petr Bažant, Ph.D., MBA., Technology Transfer Department,  Institute of Experimental Medicine, CEO of Biolnova a.s. CR

Peter John, Dr., InfraBioTech GmbH, Germany

Inkar Sagatov, Ph.D., M.D.  Department of Cardiovascular Surgery and Perfusiology, Almaty Institute of Doctors' Postgraduate Training

Guide to authors

IMPORTANT: This guide does not represent a complete and all-in-one instruction. Both experienced and starting scholars should better to use many good manuals available on the internet on how to write a good medical research. Though, this guide provides basic instructions how to accurately submit the research paper to the chosen journal - Medical and Health Sciences Journal (MHSJ).

Model of peer-review procedures

All articles to MHSJ undergo screening and followed with the peer-reviewing process. After initial screening, the titles and abstracts of the articles, which receive the positive evaluation, will be published online. Every article proceeds single-blind peer-review analysis by editorial and external experts. This model is preferred by the most medical journals. Reviewers should evaluate the quality of an article based both on established criteria and own views of experts. A reviewer is expected to fill the review form and send to the editorial department.

Sample article

Please read the following guidelines and use the sample article format for submission of your paper since only articles formatted accordingly may be accepted.

Quality control

Papers accepted undergo quality control by Editorial board and peer reviewers. All research articles in these journals undergo peer review process, based on initial editor screening and anonymous expertise of reviewers. Articles previously published, those under consideration by another journal, and those with a pre-existing copyright may not be submitted. The author must ensure that about half of the paper contents or core idea has not been published anywhere else. In other words, authors should prove the considerable adjustment made and value added in their submissions.

Language

Articles must be written in English.

Title

Concise and informative. Avoid abbreviations. The title should predict the content of the research article, be interesting to the reader. Preferably, the title should reflect the tone of the writing and contain important keywords of the research paper.

Author names and affiliations

Full names should be provided. The authors should clearly separate the first and second names as it is important for the proper writing of citation record. Please indicate affiliations of the author. Indicate the corresponding address of the main author. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the Author's name and in front of the appropriate address.

Contacts of the authors

Ensure that telephone and fax numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address.

Abstract

Authors should write not narrative, but structured style of the abstract. "Structured abstract uses subheadings. Structured abstracts are becoming more popular for basic scientific and clinical studies, since they standardize the abstract and ensure that certain information is included. This is very useful for readers who search for articles on the internet. Often the abstract is displayed by a search engine, and on the basis of the abstract, the reader will decide whether or not to download the full article. With a structured abstract, the reader is more likely to be given the information which they need to decide whether to go on to the full article and so this style is encouraged". (for details see the [Budgell B. Guidelines to the writing of case studies. The Journal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association. 2008;52(4):199-204.]).

Basically, the abstract  must include the following five parts:
- Background.
- Aim or purpose of research.
- Methods used.
- Findings/results.
- Conclusion.
Background. In most cases, the background can be framed in just 2–3 sentences, with each sentence describing a different aspect of the information referred to above; sometimes, even a single sentence may suffice. (for details see the [Andrade C. How to write a good abstract for a scientific paper or conference presentation. Indian Journal of Psychiatry. 2011;53(2):172-175. doi:10.4103/0019-5545.82558.]).
Methods used. The methods section is usually the second-longest section in the abstract. It should contain enough information to enable the reader to understand what was done, and how. (for details see the [Andrade C. How to write a good abstract for a scientific paper or conference presentation. Indian Journal of Psychiatry. 2011;53(2):172-175. doi:10.4103/0019-5545.82558.]).
Results. The results section is the most important part of the abstract and nothing should compromise its range and quality. This is because readers who peruse an abstract do so to learn about the findings of the study. The results section should, therefore, be the longest part of the abstract and should contain as much detail about the findings as the journal word count permits. (for details see the [Andrade C. How to write a good abstract for a scientific paper or conference presentation. Indian Journal of Psychiatry. 2011;53(2):172-175. doi:10.4103/0019-5545.82558.]).
Conclusions. This important section should cover: the primary take-home message; the additional findings of importance; and the perspective. (for details see the [Andrade C. How to write a good abstract for a scientific paper or conference presentation. Indian Journal of Psychiatry. 2011;53(2):172-175. doi:10.4103/0019-5545.82558.]).

Illustrations

Graphics should be done in MS Word and must be editable.

Tables

Tables should be numbered consecutively in the text in Arabic numerals and printed on separate sheets. Any manuscript which does not conform to the above instructions may be returned for the necessary revision before publication.

Footnotes

The use of footnotes should be kept to a minimum and numbered consecutively throughout the text with superscript Arabic numerals.

References

References to publications should be as follows: “Nelson (1992) noted that...” or “This problem has been studied previously (e.g., Smith et al., 1969)”.

The author should make sure that there is a strict one-to-one correspondence between the names and years in the text and those on the list. The list of references should appear at the end of the main text. It should be double-spaced and listed in alphabetical order by author's name.
We have changed the citation style. The authors should use the NLM style (National Library of Medicine).

Journal articles:

For more details, you can use the official online guide from the National Library of Medicine.
  1. Petitti DB, Crooks VC, Buckwalter JG, Chiu V. Blood pressure levels before dementia. Arch Neurol. 2005 Jan;62(1):112-6.
  2. Jun BC, Song SW, Park CS, Lee DH, Cho KJ, Cho JH. The analysis of maxillary sinus aeration according to aging process: volume assessment by 3-dimensional reconstruction by high-resolutional CT scanning. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2005 Mar;132(3):429-34.
  3. Meneton P, Jeunemaitre X, de Wardener HE, MacGregor GA. Links between dietary salt intake, renal salt handling, blood pressure, and cardiovascular diseases. Physiol Rev. 2005 Apr;85(2):679-715.
  4. Bruno-Ambrosius K, Yucel-Lindberg T, Twetman S. Salivary buffer capacity in relation to menarche and progesterone levels in saliva from adolescent girls: a longitudinal study. Acta Odontol Scand. 2004 Oct;62(5):269-72.
  5. Fuentes Ramirez M, Lopez Moreno S. [Social health research: recent communications in Salud Publica de Mexico]. Salud Publica Mex. 2005 Jan-Feb;47(1):5-7. Spanish.

Journal articles with an organization as the author:

For more details, you can use the official online guide from the National Library of Medicine.
  1. American Diabetes Association. Diabetes update. Nursing. 2003 Nov;Suppl:19-20, 24.
  2. Parkinson Study Group. A randomized placebo-controlled trial of rasagiline in levodopa-treated patients with Parkinson disease and motor fluctuations: the PRESTO study. Arch Neurol. 2005 Feb;62(2):241-8.
  3. Merritt, Hawkins & Associates. 2004 survey of physicians 50 to 65 years old. J Med Assoc Ga. 2004;93(3):21-6.
  4. Institute of Medical Illustrators. Photography of cleft audit patients. J Audiov Media Med. 2004 Dec;27(4):170-4.
  5. Sugarterapias es Onkologiai Szakmai Kollegium. [Methodologic recommendations of the Oncology and Radiotherapy College. Protocol for oncology care. Diagnostic algorithms in the course of patient follow-up]. Magy Onkol. 2004;48(4):339-47. Hungarian.

Journal articles in a language other than English:

For more details, you can use the official online guide from the National Library of Medicine.
  1. Berrino F, Gatta G, Crosignani P. [Case-control evaluation of screening efficacy]. Epidemiol Prev. 2004 Nov-Dec;28(6):354-9. Italian.
  2. Bechade D, Desrame J, Raynaud JJ, Algayres JP. [Oesophageal ulcer associated with the use of bacampicillin]. Presse Med. 2005 Feb 26;34(4):299-300. French.
  3. Zhao L, Li H, Han D. [Effects of intestinal endotoxemia on the development of cirrhosis in rats]. Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi. 2001 Jul;9 Suppl:21-3. Chinese.
  4. Calera Rubio AA, Roel Valdes JM, Casal Lareo A, Gadea Merino R, Rodrigo Cencillo F. Riesgo quimico laboral: elementos para un diagnostico en Espana [Occupational chemical risk: elements for a diagnostic in Spain]. Rev Esp Salud Publica. 2005 Mar-Apr;79(2):283-95. Spanish.References

Standard books with initials for authors:

For more details, you can use the official online guide from the National Library of Medicine.
  1. Jenkins PF. Making sense of the chest x-ray: a hands-on guide. New York: Oxford University Press; 2005. 194 p.
  2. Eyre HJ, Lange DP, Morris LB. Informed decisions: the complete book of cancer diagnosis, treatment, and recovery. 2nd ed. Atlanta: American Cancer Society; c2002. 768 p.
  3. Iverson C, Flanagin A, Fontanarosa PB, Glass RM, Glitman P, Lantz JC, Meyer HS, Smith JM, Winker MA, Young RK. American Medical Association manual of style. 9th ed. Baltimore (MD): Williams & Wilkins; 1998. 660 p.
  4. Wenger NK, Sivarajan Froelicher E, Smith LK, Ades PA, Berra K, Blumenthal JA, Certo CME, Dattilo AM, Davis D, DeBusk RF, Drozda JP Jr, Fletcher BJ, Franklin BA, Gaston H, Greenland P, McBride PE, McGregor CGA, Oldridge NB, Piscatella JC, Rogers FJ. Cardiac rehabilitation. Rockville (MD): Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (US); 1995. 202 p.
  5. Iverson C, Flanagin A, Fontanarosa PB, et al. American Medical Association manual of style. 9th ed. Baltimore (MD): Williams & Wilkins; 1998. 660 p

Contributions to books:

For more details, you can use the official online guide from the National Library of Medicine.
  1. Whiteside TL, Heberman RB. Effectors of immunity and rationale for immunotherapy. In: Kufe DW, Pollock RE, Weichselbaum RR, Bast RC Jr, Gansler TS, Holland JF, Frei E 3rd, editors. Cancer medicine 6. Hamilton (ON): BC Decker Inc; 2003. p. 221-8.
  2. Rojko JL, Hardy WD Jr. Feline leukemia virus and other retroviruses. In: Sherding RG, editor. The cat: diseases and clinical management. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1989. p. 229-332.
  3. Kone BC. Metabolic basis of solute transport. In: Brenner BM, Rector FC, editors. Brenner and Rector’s the kidney. 8th ed. Vol. 1. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier; c2008. p. 130-55.
  4. Erin, Jane N.; Fazzi, Diane L.; Gordon, Robert L.; Isenberg, Sherwin J.; Paysse, Evelyn A. Vision focus: understanding the medical and functional implications of vision loss. In: Pogrund, Rona L.; Fazzi, Diane L., editors. Early focus: working with young children who are blind or visually impaired and their families. 2nd ed. New York: AFB Press; c2002. p. 52-106.
  5. Buckenmaier CC 3rd. Austere environment anesthesia. In: Steele SM, Nielsen KC, Klein SM, editors. Ambulatory anesthesia and perioperative analgesia. New York: McGraw-Hill, Medical Publications Division; c2005. p. 357-70.
  6. Otado JA, Akukwe C, Collins JW Jr. Disparate African American and white infant mortality rates in the United States. In: Livingston IL, editor. Praeger handbook of Black American health: policies and issues behind disparities in health. 2nd ed. Westport (CT): Praeger; 2004. p. 355-68.
  7. de Mattiello ML, Maneiro M, Buglione S. Sensitivity to movement of configurations of achromatic and chromatic points in amblyopic patients. In: Mellon JD, Pokorny J, Knoblauch K, editors. Normal and defective colour vision. New York: Oxford University Press; 2003. p. 154-9.

Submission fee payment

Standard submission & service fee is 120 Euro (for 2018 volume). The fee is due to pay only after receiving the positive review and formal acceptance letter from the editor. The fee provides compensation of a range services related to expertise, scientific and technical editing, printing, electronic storing and web-managing. All papers are printed online (with corresponding online ISSN) and in print form (with corresponding Print ISSN). The major version of MHSJ publication is online (electronic) with eISSN 1804-5014. The fee is not a subject to guarantee the sending printed copy via standard air mail.

Payments options

You will receive an invoice with several payment methods you can choose after the letter of acceptance.

Important

Payments must be done only after the final letter of acceptance of a paper for publication.

Electronic submission

Papers must be submitted electronically to mhsj@pradec.eu or publications@pradec.eu. For any further information please contact us.

Publication ethics

IMPORTANT: This section describes principles and rules which can be somehow similar and/or common to other few journals of the publisher (Prague Development Center). Therefore, the text may partially or completely coincide with the requirements in other publisher's journals.

General standards of PRADEC Publishing

The Medical and Health Science Journal (MHSJ) is established by Prague Development Center (publisher) as academic communication platform founded on important ethical standards in science publishing. Publisher and editorial board follow principles to avoid bad practices related to ghostwriting, plagiarism, and predatory publishing practices. The publisher and editors commit to practices which create and support the trust on every phase of editorial and communication process embracing authors, editors, and peer-reviewers.

To increase transparency we call authors to write correct affiliations and addresses and show the source of funding for their research when it is required by funding institutions. To agree with the authorship and avoid the conflicts we ask for the declaration of contribution from the corresponding author. To avoid extensive self-citation practice we ask authors to use correct and relevant referencing to own research works published earlier.

Ethical conduct in both writing and editing is necessary in order to provide the readers with accurate, useful and reliable scientific material, as well as to appropriately honor the credits of particular researchers and authors. Therefore, compliance with the following standards of publication ethics is required of all contributors of the ATI, including authors, reviewers, and editors. Violation of any of these standards by an author is a basis for rejection of his or her paper submitted for publication.

Plagiarism

In publishing only original research, the editors are committed to deterring plagiarism, including self-plagiarism. Editors can use special software to screen submitted manuscripts for similarity to published material. Note that your manuscript may be screened during the whole editorial cycle, including submission process and until the final publication in online or print form. Authors should not engage in plagiarism - verbatim or near-verbatim copying, or very close paraphrasing, of text or results from another,’s work. Authors should not engage in self-plagiarism (also known as duplicate publication) - unacceptably close replication of the author’s own previously published text or results without acknowledgment of the source.

Conflict of interests disclosure

Conflict of interest concerning a particular manuscript exists when one of the participants of reviewing or publication process - an author, reviewer, or editor - has obligations that can influence his or her action. Conflicts can occur for financial (e.g., employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, etc.) or other reasons (e.g., personal relationship, academic competition, and intellectual passion). All participants in the peer-review and publication process must disclose all conflicts of interests. Editorial staff may use information disclosed in conflict-of-interest and financial-interest statements as a basis for editorial decisions. The corresponding author must advise the editor at the time of submission either that there is no conflict of interest to declare, or should disclose potential conflicts of interest that will be acknowledged in the published article.

It is improper for an author to submit manuscripts describing essentially the same research to more than one journal of primary publication unless it is a resubmission of a manuscript rejected for or withdrawn from publication.

Authorship

All persons designed as “authors” should meet the criteria of the concept. The corresponding author must fill in and sign the Declaration of Contribution (in case there are two authors or more), which should be submitted together with the manuscript. Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take responsibility for its content. The group of authors/contributors should jointly make the decision about the order in which their names are given. Authorship credit should be based on the following principles as 1) substantial contribution to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; 2) drafting the article or reviewing and introducing fundamental changes in it; 3) final approval of the version to be published. Editors of the journal have the right to request information about the contributions of each person in writing the article.

An author should cite those publications that have been important in the development of the submitted study and that will guide the reader to the earlier researchers that are essential for understanding the present analysis.

An author is obligated to perform a literature search to find, and then cite, the original publications that describe closely related work. An author should provide the accurate citation the verified sources of scientific data and literature.

Coauthor notification

During manuscript submission, the submitting author must provide contact information (full name, email address, institutional affiliation and mailing address) for all of the coauthors. The author who submits the manuscript for publication accepts the responsibility of notifying all coauthors that the manuscript is being submitted. The corresponding author must fill in and sign the declaration of contribution (in case there are two authors or more) which should be submitted together with the manuscript. The co-authors of a paper should be all those persons who have made significant scientific contributions to the work reported and who share responsibility and accountability for the results. Authors should appropriately recognize the contributions of technical staff and data professionals.

Acknowledgments and funding

All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in the section “Acknowledgements”. If the original research study reported in the manuscript or the preparation of the manuscript was supported by one or more grants, the title and number of the grant(s) and the name of the institution(s) that provided the grants or financial support to conduct, analyze or write-up the study should be specified in the manuscript.

Coherence of study

Fragmentation of research reports should be avoided. A scientist should organize publication so that it provides a well-rounded description of an examined issue. Fragmentation consumes journal space excessively and unduly complicates literature searches.

Reviewing

The journal is peer-reviewed publication. Submitted papers and short communications are evaluated by editorial board members or specialized in the article field referees. Article review covers submitted material currency, scientific novelty degree, define it’s accordance to general journal profile, fixes facts of plagiarism. After the refereeing process is complete, the paper may be rejected, or returned to the authors for revisions, or accepted for publication.

Editing

The authors are responsible for the contents of their paper or short communication and it’s publication fact. The editorial staff reserves the right to shorten and review the articles submitted. Editors may request an author, when it is necessary, to develop content or technical details of articles. Scientific editing might change the format and correct the writing to make it conventional with the editorial policy of the journal.  Pictures and graphs are special subjects for editorial consideration. We seek to keep their quantity optimal and only necessary in content. Images should be free from misleading manipulation. When images are included in an account of research performed or in the data collection as part of the research, an accurate description of how the images were generated and produced should be provided.

Policies on retraction and withdrawal
IMPORTANT: This section describes principles and rules which can be somehow similar and/or common to other few journals of the publisher (Prague Development Center). Therefore, the text may partially or completely coincide with the requirements in other publisher's journals.
 
As a publisher, we strive to prevent the occurrence of occasional and limited cases of retraction and withdrawal of the published articles. As the costs of securing retraction and withdrawal are high for the publisher. Effective screening, peer-reviewing, verifying authorship, and other preventive procedures usually help to minimize such rare cases in the publishing practice. Below are the important rules for retraction and withdrawal policies of the PRADEC Publishing. These approaches and rules may be revised, supplemented, amended, etc.

Article retraction

The publisher will follow the selected standards which have been developed by a number of library and scholarly bodies. Reasons for retraction can include infringements of ethical codes, multiple submission, false claims of authorship, plagiarism, fraudulent, need to correct errors in submission or publication, other reasons as well. The publisher recognizes the retraction as an occasional feature in the academic publishing.
The following actions will be made under retraction policy:
- A retraction note titled “Retraction: [article title]” will be published in the separate article at the end of the related online issue
- In the HTML version will the record [near the title] which can be e.g. as 'RETRACTED'
- The PDF version of the retracted article can be preserved with some special note at the beginning of the article
- The DOI and HTML links will be preserved.

Article removal and/or withdrawal

Article after the publication is not subject to removal, except for the sole discretion of the publisher. When editors screen, review and publish the article online or/end in print the article cannot be withdrawn until the decision of editors and publisher. The published articles go immediately to indexing archives and DOI depositories.
Full rights for the removal of the publication of the article remain to the publisher. Retraction or removal of published article can arise in very rear and exceptional circumstances. Usually, it takes a long time to make a deeper analysis, examination of reasons and negotiations.
Online submission

The corresponding author must fill in and sign the Declaration of contribution (in case there are two authors or more) which should be submitted together with manuscript using the Online Submission form.

Indexing
The journal is indexed/registered/covered by the following services:
Academic Journals Database, BASE, CABI, EBSCO Discovery Service, EBSCO Academic Search Premier, E-International Scientific Research Journal Consortium (E-ISRJC), e-LIBRARY.RU, DOAJ (2010-2016), Gale, Global Health (CABI), Google scholar, Libsearch,Open J-Gate,  ResearchGate,  Ulrich’s Periodicals Directory, VSL Open, Scirus, Research Bible, Knowledge Network, Academic Publishing Platforms, Bibliographia medicaČechoslovaca (Medvik), CiteFactor, U.S. National Library of Medicine Catalogue, Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek EZB (Regensburg University Library), ROAD - the Directory of Open Access Scholarly Resources, Index Copernicus, Open Access Articles, Scilit, WorldCat network, The German National Library of Science and Technology (TIB) - Leibniz Information Centre for Science and Technology and University Library, Scilit, Open Access Library (OALib), Thomson Web of Science - CAB Abstracts, Thomson Web of Science - Global Health.
Call for reviewers

IMPORTANT: This note can be somehow similar to other few journals of the publisher (Prague Development Center). Therefore, the text may partially or completely coincide with the requirements in other journals - BEH, PIEB, and ATI. If you are interested in reviewing articles for PRADEC journals, we would like to invite your participation. Manuscript reviewers are vital to the publications process.

Call for reviewers

The high-quality peer-review process is necessary for establishing the reputation of every scientific journal. MHSJ invites experienced medical researchers to collaborate with us as reviewers. The Journal is especially interested in reviewers who have expertise and interest in the following specialties and clinical topics: surgery, general medicine, orthopedics, cardiology, dermatology, gastroenterology, nephrology, neurology, pediatrics, rheumatology, urology, obstetrics and gynecology, internal medicine, medical genetics, otolaryngology, physical medicine and rehabilitation, psychiatry. Other areas of medical specialization are also accountable.

The charge of reviewers is to evaluate the quality, relevance, and merit of submitted papers. Reviews must be as complete and detailed as possible and contain clear opinions about strengths, weaknesses, relevance, and importance to the field. Preferably, reviewers should consider themselves as mentors to the author(s) and comments should be specific and constructive and suggestions should be intended to enhance the manuscript.

Therefore, if you would like to share your professional opinion and have an impact on MHSJ development please fill in the survey and send it to publications@pradec.eu.

Requirements

- Possess a doctoral degree in the medical or related discipline;
- Be fluent in academic English;
- Hold an academic affiliation;
- Work effectively under tight deadlines.
- Have published articles in authoritative journals.

What do we offer?

Reviewing is voluntary. Publisher does not offer paid options to reviewers whilst it implements the open-access and affordable fee business model for authors. We are open to cooperation with reviewers who support the concept and values of our journal. While most medical journals have high fees both to open-access (free)  and paid to read articles, the MHSJ is low-cost medical research journal who does not impose high costs to authors. However, the MHSJ can promise volunteering reviewers opportunities to save up credits to put towards their own publishing costs in the future.

Terms and conditions

The author and co-authors of the article strictly commit to the policy of editors by accepting these terms and conditions

  • Authors are responsible to read and accept fee payment obligations of the targeted journal. The website has clear information about publication fees and payment terms. When paper accepted and published the author is obliged to fulfill his/ her fee payment obligations in the shortest time after the invoice issued.
  • The primary version of the journal is the online version. Therefore, we do not send a printed copy to the author(s) of the published article. Publisher does not make profits via subscription or sales of print copies. The publisher offers the full content for free access to the public and without restrictions.
  • All rules and requirements relevant to the chosen type of submission are read and understood. Sending submission means accepted by the author/submitter all responsibility related to editorial and publishing conditions.
  • Submission technical requirements are read and accepted in designing and preparing the research paper
  • Please note that scientific editing might change the format and correct the writing to make it conventional with editorial policy.
  • Responsibility for facts and opinions presented in the contents of journals, electronic and/or printed rests exclusively with the authors, other submitters if there is relevance. Their interpretations do not necessarily reflect the views of publisher or editors, affiliated or partnering with journals and with authors institutions.
  • F.A.Q. must be visited if there is an additional reason in clarifying editorial policy. The editors can contact editors via email when it is accepted
  • Neither the publisher nor the editors can be held responsible for errors or any consequences arising from the use of information contained in this journal.
  • Rejected manuscripts will not be returned to the author.
  • The submitted article after evaluation can be published in elaborating/projecting online issues which differ ahead/or back from the submission date up to 3 consequent issues or 6 months interval.
  • The version of an article which is published online is considered the final and complete version. Even though it is possible to correct this version, our policy (in common with other publishers) is not to do so, except in very limited circumstances. When an author wishes to update the published paper it can be possible within 4 weeks after publication.
  • Article after the publication is not subject to removal, except for the sole discretion of the publisher. When editors screen, review and publish the article online or/end in print the article cannot be withdrawn until the decision of editors and publisher. The published articles go immediately to indexing archives and DOI depositories.
  • Full rights for the removal of the publication of the article remain to the publisher. Retraction or removal of published article can arise in very rear and exceptional circumstances. Usually, it takes a long time to make a deeper analysis, examination of reasons and negotiations.
  • After receiving of the article editors and publisher usually publish immediately online the metadata. After screening and reviewing the full article can be published. The time length between submission and publication of metadata and the full article can be different and make hours, days or months. All this process is usually related to merits, quality of the paper, internal editorial processes, other factors. When necessary, the editors can issue proof of acceptance to the applied author.
  • The author is responsible for avoiding multiple submissions of the same article to other journals. PRADEC editors can charge authors for additional fees when it will be found that similar article was published in parallel. We can contact and inform the relevant journals about multiple practices of the author. When there are signs and suspicions about duplicate submission behavior of the authors the publisher monitors periodically online during 12 weeks.
  • Website content, information, or terms and conditions may be revised without formal notice. We cannot guarantee that this website will be updated on a regular basis or otherwise provide the most current or accurate information that may be available.
  • No part of the material protected by this copyright notice may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission from the copyright owner.