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Title:
Can aid stimulate productivity in sub-Saharan Africa? A dynamic panel approach
Author:
Katarzyna Swierczynska, Agata Kliber,
Abstract:
The aim of the study was to examine the impact of the official development aid (ODA) on productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa. As development policies embrace different types of aid interventions, we decomposed aid by type of flows and analysed their relations with 24 African states’ productivity (measured by total factor productivity) over the period 1995-2014. Results of the dynamic panel model estimation reveal important implications for the development cooperation policy agenda. It appears that although total value of ODA does not support productivity, technical aid disbursements are associated with higher total factor productivity. This implies that the implementation of technical cooperation enables absorption of technology and contributes to the increase of technology development in recipient Sub-Saharan African countries. The results are fairly robust. Moreover, in this study we confirm that low infrastructure development and shortages in primary education are associated with lower productivity, while trade openness, development of financial market, and political stability - with higher productivity values.
Keywords:
Official development assistance, technical cooperation, sub-Saharan Africa, technology absorption, total factor productivity
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BEH is peer-reviewed international research journal. BEH covers a broad spectrum of issues related to business and economics at all levels of aggregation; encourages subjects meeting responses and challenges of market development at local, national and global dimensions. The primary version of the journal is the online version.

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The Business and Economic Horizons (BEH) is an international peer-reviewed journal that publishes high quality theoretical, empirical, and review papers covering the broad spectrum of research in areas of economics, business, management, and finance. The journal aim is to bridge the gap between the theory and the observed data in these constantly developing domains. BEH Editorial Board welcomes the high-quality original research articles and review papers that verify the well-grounded and the emerging theories by employing the econometric, statistical methods or other relevant empirical methods in theoretical and applied economic analysis.  BEH does not discriminate articles utilizing the non-mainstream approaches such as experimental research, institutional analysis, other variations of heterodox and developmental economic studies. Therefore, the submissions in any field of micro- and macroeconomics, business ethics, economic policy or finance are appropriate for this journal. We hope, the provided contributions will help to understand the contemporary challenges faced by the private and public sector and will establish an international forum of empirical research.
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Deputy Chief Editor 

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Section Editors 

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Yasuo Hoshino, Quantitative Analysis of Corporate Mergers, Behavioral Analysis of International Joint Ventures. Aichi University, University of Tsukuba; Japan

Rafał Jakubowski, Micro- and Macroeconomics, Experimental Economics. Wroclaw University of Economics; Poland

Paweł Kuśmierczyk, Mathematical Economics, Auction Theory. Wroclaw University of Economics; Poland

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Daniel Papla, Econometrics, Statistics. Wroclaw University of Economics; Poland

Adalberto Rangone, Corporate Governance, Business Management. University of Pavia; Italy

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Min-Teh Yu, Financial Institutions, Risk Management and Insurance, Derivatives Markets. National Chiao Tung University; Taiwan

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Advisory CouncilJosef Abrham, Centre of European Studies, University of Economics, Prague; Czech Republic

Oscar Bajo-Rubio, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha; Spain

Filip Chybalski, Lodz University of Technology; Poland

Jurgen Conrad, Asian Development Bank; People's Republic of China

Carmen Díaz-Roldán, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha; Spain

Ryokichi Hirono, Seikei University; Japan

Khaled Hussainey, Portsmouth University; United Kingdom

Mario B. Lamberte, COMPETE, The Asia Foundation; Philippines

Pacha Malyadri, Osmania  University, Andhra Pradesh; India

Petr Marek, University of Economics, Prague; Czech Republic

Haitham Nobanee, College of Business Administration, Abu Dhabi University; U.A.E.

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  • The introduction should start straightforward with the issue you research in this paper. Avoid general and abstract sentences. Authors should mention the interesting issue and the related problem statement. Narrow the background information down to specific points. A writer should not include details in the research paper introduction.
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  • Authors should clearly state what their contribution to the existing research is.
  • Explain briefly major questions and/or hypotheses.
  • Mention briefly on methodology how you are approaching (method, model, testing, review, etc.) to the questions. You must make clear whether you are testing a model, evaluating a model, making a review of policy, etc. Authors should indicate to data used in the research.
  • Explain briefly your main results; how the obtained findings differ from previous work and what the implications of these findings are.

Writing Style guidelines

  • Figures should be done in MS Word and must be editable.
  • Authors can find useful the selected guidelines regarding the writing style.
  • Well-balanced structure of the article: Build up a good outline (structure) of your article. A sample of the outline can look as follows:

Introduction: Pose an central question or problem, describe problm statement, explain the organisation of the paper (how the article is organized, composed)
Literature review: Survey the sufficient literature to discover existing approaches and results on the central questions and problems of your article
Methods/Data: Formulate your hypothesis and describe your data. Clearly specify data, tools, and models.
Results: Present your results with the help of graphs and charts
Discussion: Critique your method and/or discuss any policy implications
Research limitations: Explain what are the limitations of your study
Conclusions: Summarize what you have done; pose questions for further research
References: Verify all references to all used literature sources in the article. Do not put references which do not directly links to your main text in the article.  Carefully check the APA style for in-text citation and for references of different types.Constructive evaluation of results: Don’t exaggerate. In an original research paper, don’t overstate your contribution to the literature.

  • The scope of literature review: If your article is a review paper, rather than original research, your scope for critiquing the literature is broader. But your critique should be focused and constructive.
  • Clarity: Authors should provide the clarity of all aspects and components of the research paper. Clarity is hard to achieve, but revising and reworking a paper ensures it is easy to read.
  • Logical nexus: In all parts of the article, try to keep the focus on reasoning around your central questions. State your hypothesis and proceed deductively to reach your conclusions
  • Wordiness: Avoid excess verbiage. Omit needless words (concise writing is clear writing).
  • Syntax: Check the syntax of every sentence to avoid vague, complex and indecipherable meaning. Remove what is not needed, and keep revising until you get down to a simple, efficient way of communicating
  • Active voice preference: Use the active voice, minimize using the passive voice

Tables and figures

  • Any manuscript which does not conform to the above instructions may be returned for the necessary revision before publication.
  • Tables should be numbered consecutively in the text in Arabic numerals.
  • Clearly and precisely describe your tables and figures. Make clear statements which describe how the results in the table and/or figure fit into the overall theme of the paper and support your hypotheses and reasoning.
  • Please put Figures and Tables on the end of your paper and make a notice in the text between what paragraphs you want the graphics
  • Figures should be done in MS Word and must be editable.
  • Do not copy and pace the figures from digital books, brochures, journals, etc. If you decide to use them, make sure using good imaging tools and soft to provide clear and correct image after placing it to the article.
  • In your submission process attach separately (when you consider it necessary) the images with sufficient resolution. So, editors can use original images for a better quality of the final article.

Formulas

  • Authors should write all formulas in clear form. Preferably, write all formulas and mathematical signs, variables and parameters in the text with the help of Math type tool or Formula tool in the Microsoft Word.

Footnotes

  • The use of footnotes should be kept to a minimum and numbered consecutively throughout the text with superscript Arabic numerals.

References

  • Be very accurate in wring references. Put ONLY references which you are discussing/noting in the MAIN BODY of the article. Every work cited in the text must appear in the references; every work listed in the references must be cited in the text. The references should be in alphabetical order.
  • Please refer to APA 6th edition citation style. While preparing your submission in MS Word we also strongly encourage to use the Citations & Bibliography tools. Link 1   Link 2
  • The following websites may be also useful while preparing the APA 6th style references: citationmachine.net, citethisforme.com
  • The author should make sure that there is a strict one-to-one correspondence between the names and years in the text and those on the list. The list of references should appear at the end of the main text. It should be double-spaced and listed in alphabetical order by author's name.

The example references

Article from journals:
  • Abdellaoui, M., Attema, A. E., & Bleichrodt, H. (2009). Intertemporal Tradeoffs for Gains and Losses: An Experimental Measurement of Discounted Utility. The Economic Journal,120(545), 845-866. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0297.2009.02308.
Book:
  • Elton, E. J., Gruber, M. J., Brown, S. J., & Goetzmann, W. N. (2009). Modern Portfolio Theory and Investment Analysis (8th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Book chapter:
  • Chłoń-Domińczak, A., Franco, D., & Palmer, E. (2012). The First Wave of NDC Reforms: The Experiences of Italy, Latvia, Poland,and Sweden. In R. Holzmann, E. Palmer, & D. Robalino, Nonfinancial Defined Contribution Pension Schemes in a Changing Pension World: Volume 1. Progress, Lessons, and Implementation (pp. 31-84). Washington, DC: World Bank.
Conference paper:
  • Bickmann, M. (2016). Factor Mobility and Non-Harmonized Public Pension Systems in Europe. Paper presented in 14th International Workshop on Pensions, Insurance and Savings, Paris.
Report:
  • Fernandes, J. L. (2007). Risk Taking in Financial Markets: Behavioral Perspective Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Retrieved March 25, 2017, from https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/6287466.pdf
Newspaper:
  • Markoff, J. (2016, May 17). Want to Buy a Self-Driving Car? Big-Rig Trucks May Come First. The New York Times. Retrieved March 25, 2017, from https://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/17/technology/want-to-buy-a-self-driving-car-trucks-may-come-first.html?action=click&contentCollection=Business Day&module=RelatedCoverage®ion=EndOfArticle&pgtype=article
Website:
  • Galouchko, K., & Kucukreisoglu, L. (2016, October 18). Poland Seeks to Lock in Low Yields Selling 30-Year Eurobond. Retrieved March 25, 2017, from https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-10-18/poland-seeks-to-lock-in-low-yields-with-first-30-year-eurobond
Working paper:
  • Debowicz, D., Saporiti, A., & Wang, Y. (2016). Redistributive Politics, Power Sharing and Fairness (LIS Working Paper Series , Working paper No. 681). Luxembourg Income Study

Acknowledgment

In compiling our instructions we used some valuable guidelines. Some of them we recommend to read more deeply:

  • Dudenhefer, P. (2009). A guide to Writing in Economics. EcoTeach Center and Department of Economics, Durham USA: Duke University. Retrieved March 16, 2017, from http://writing.ku.edu/sites/writing.drupal.ku.edu/files/docs/Guide_Writing_Economics.pdf
  • Neugeboren, R. (2005). The student's guide to writing economics. New York, NY: Routledge.
  • Nikolov, P. (2013). Writing Tips For Economics Research Papers. Harvard University. Retrieved March 16, 2017, from http://www.people.fas.harvard.edu/~pnikolov/resources/writingtips.pdf and
    http://www.kimoon.co.kr/gmi/reading/nikolov-writingtips-2013.pdf
  • Redmond, P. (2015). Writing Economics at University. Retrieved March 16, 2017, from https://ddd.uab.cat/pub/recdoc/2015/166563/Writing_Economics.pd

Submission fee payment

  • Standard submission & service fee established for the 2019 year open-access publications is 375 Euro.
  • The fee is subject to change considering the publisher occurring costs for sustaining and improving the open-access business model, as well as counting competitive publishing environment demanding to keep the high quality of international publication services. Changes in pricing happen only once per year, usually in the January-February.
  • The fee is due to pay only after accepting the paper by Editorial Boards and positive expertise review.
  • It is obligation and responsibility of an author to check the fee conditions to avoid the fee policy discussions after acceptance the article. Authors are responsible to read and accept fee (375 euro) payment obligations of the targeted journal. The website has clear information about publication fees and payment terms. When paper accepted and published the author is obliged to fulfill his/ her fee payment obligations in the shortest time after the invoice issued.
  • The fee provides compensation for a range services related to expertise, scientific and technical editing, online printing, electronic storing and web-managing. All papers are printed online (with corresponding online ISSN).

Payments options

  • You will receive an invoice with several payment methods you can choose after the letter of acceptance. We use standard bank payments, PayPal payments.

Important

  • Payments must be done only after the final letter of acceptance of a paper for publication.
  • Authors are responsible to read and accept fee payment obligations of the targeted journal. The website has clear information about publication fees and payment terms. When paper accepted and published the author is obliged to fulfill his/ her fee payment obligations in the shortest time after the invoice issued.
  • When the paper is conditionally accepted and the fee is paid but the final work from the authors remains incomplete and unsatisfactory for reviewers, the publication is delayed until the final resolution. The process can take a time around 1-12 months. In case authors fail, due to various reasons, to match all the requirements of reviewers and editors, the article is rejected. The paid fee is not refundable to the authors.

Electronic submission

  • Papers must be submitted electronically using Online Submission (preferred) or to the emails: beh@pradec.eupublications@pradec.eu. For any further information please contact us.

Retraction or/and withdrawing of reviewed and published articles

  • The peer-reviewed and published articles cannot be retracted or withdrawn. If the article was officially submitted and accepted by editors after screening and reviewing, the withdrawal and retraction are not possible.  Accepted articles assume that our experts and reviewers could not identify problems with merits of a submitted article. After the positive initial screening and double-blind reviewing, every article is assigned to DOI.
  • However, editors do understand satisfaction concerns of an author and usually ask for describing the problem for further reviewer's examination and discussion. So, the one possible option is that it can be possible to make changes within the reasonable shortest time after online publication.  Another option, an author can write another article which should provide the follow-up review of errors/mistakes in a theoretical research or empirical model in the previously published article.
  • For more details please read terms and conditions which you officially accept when you send your articles to the editors' emails. It is a responsibility of an author to read instruction, conditions, and terms before the submission of an article.  These terms make retraction or removal impossible. Only editors and publisher make decisions after receiving the article regarding rejection, further update or publishing.
  • Information regarding the retraction and withdrawal conditions are available in the following sections of the core official page of the journal: - the section "Publication ethics"; the section  "Terms and Conditions"; the section "Guide to Authors".
Publication ethics
Publication ethics
 
Editors of Business and Economic Horizons (BEH) are committed to the highest standards of ethics in academic research and publishing. Ethical conduct in both writing and editing is necessary in order to provide the readers with accurate, useful and reliable scientific material, as well as to appropriately honor the credits of particular researchers and authors. Therefore, compliance with the following standards of publication ethics is required of all contributors of BEH, including authors, reviewers and editors. Violation of any of these standards by an author is a basis for rejection of his or her paper submitted for publication.
 
I.  Authorship and Co-authorship
 
1. Authorship
 
Authorship credit should be based on meeting the following criteria: 1) substantial contribution to paper concept or design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; 2) drafting the article or reviewing and introducing fundamental changes in it; 3) final approval of the version to be published.
 
All persons designated as authors and co-authors should meet these criteria. As co-authors of a paper there should be identified all persons who have made significant scientific contributions to the work reported, and who therefore share responsibility its content and results. Authors should also appropriately recognize the contributions of technical staff and data professionals. All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship (e.g. financial support) should be listed in the section “Acknowledgements” (financial disclosure). Editors retain the right to request information about the contributions of each person in writing the article. 
 
Authors should also be aware that the following phenomena are the examples of scientific misconduct and must be avoided:
 
Ghostwriting -  a substantial contribution to publication has been made, without revealing author’s participation, or without being mentioned in the acknowledgments enclosed to the paper.
 
Guest authorship (honorary authorship) - the author's contribution is insignificant, despite of declaration.
 
A group of co-authors should jointly make the decision about the order in which their names are given. During manuscript submission, the submitting author must provide contact information (full name, email address, institutional affiliation and mailing address) for all of the co-authors. The author who submits the manuscript for publication accepts the responsibility of notifying all co-authors of the manuscript being submitted. The corresponding author must fill in and sign the Declaration of Contribution (in case there are two authors or more), which should be submitted together with the manuscript. 
 
All detected cases of scientific misconduct will be documented and the appropriate institutions and entities will be notified.
 
2. Sources of data and ideas
 
Authors are required to faithfully acknowledge and identify contributions of other persons to their reported work as well as clearly identify sources of both data and ideas. Authors should cite all publications that have been important in the development of the submitted study and that will guide the reader to the earlier researchers that are essential for understanding the present analysis.
 
Authors are required to make reasonable and diligent efforts to find, and then accurately cite original sources and publications. Authors should only present as reliable either personally verified or peer-reviewed sources of scientific data and literature.
 
Authors must not engage in plagiarism or self-plagiarism. Plagiarism is verbatim or near-verbatim copying, or paraphrasing without due modification, of text, data, or other material containing results of another person’s work, without explicit identification of the source of such material. Similarly, self-plagiarism is replicating of the author’s own previously published text or results without acknowledgment of the source. Exercising care for publishing only original research, editors of BEH are committed to deterring plagiarism and self-plagiarism and may use special software to screen submitted manuscripts for similarity to a previously published material. The manuscripts may be screened during the whole editorial cycle, including submission process and until the final publication in an online form.
 
3. Duplicate publications
 
It is prohibited for an author to submit manuscripts describing essentially the same research to more than one journal of primary publication unless it is a resubmission of a manuscript rejected for or withdrawn from publication.
 
II. Quality of Published Work
 
1. Comprehensiveness of research and publications
 
An author is required to organize his or her paper so that it provides a well-rounded description of the examined issue.
Fragmentation of research reports excessively consumes journal space and unduly complicates literature research, therefore authors are expected to avoid it whenever possible.
 
2. Conflicts of interest
 
Conflict of interest is a situation in which the process of research and publication may be corrupted or its results may be biased because of some other interests of its participants. It may concern any one or more of the participants of research and publication process – the author, the reviewer, or the editor. Conflicts of interest may occur for financial (e.g. employment opportunities, fees or other compensation arrangements, beneficial ownership of stock) or other reasons (e.g., personal relationships, pursuit of academic career, intellectual passion, political involvement etc.) that can reasonably be expected to influence motivations or results of actions of participants of the publication process.
 
Conflicts of interest constitute a serious threat to the integrity and objectivity of both scientific research and publishing. Therefore best practice for authors, reviewers and editors alike, is to avoid conflicts of interest situations whenever possible.
 
All participants in publication process who are in the situation of a conflict of interest must disclose this fact. Of special importance is that if the original research study reported in the manuscript or the preparation of the manuscript was supported by one or more grants, the title and number of the grant(s) and the name of the institution(s) that provided the grants or financial support to conduct, analyze or write-up the study, must be specified in the manuscript.
 
Editors of BEH may use information disclosed in conflict-of-interest and financial-support statements as a basis for editorial decisions. The corresponding author must either notify the editor at the time of submission that there is no conflict of interest to declare, or fairly and effectively communicate all conflicts of interest, which will then be acknowledged in the published article.
 
III. Reviewing and Editing
 
1. Reviewing
 
Business and Economic Horizons is a peer-reviewed journal. Submitted papers and short communication are evaluated by independent referees or Editorial Board members specialized in the article field. Paper reviews evaluate submitted material’s scientific significance and novelty, define it’s accordance to general journal profile, scrutinize its content for compliance with the journal’s publication ethics. After the refereeing process is complete, the paper may be rejected, returned to the author for revisions, or accepted for publication. 
 
2. Editing
 
The authors are responsible for the contents of their paper or short communication. Editors may request an author, when considered necessary, to elaborate on the content or technical details of the paper. Scientific editing might change format and correct the writing to render it compliant with editorial policy of the journal. 
Pictures and graphs are special subject to editorial consideration, as their quantity should be optimal and only necessary in the content of papers. Pictures, graphs and textual content alike are subject to ethical standards concerning authorship and integrity. Additionally, whenever images are included in accounts of research process or results, or in data collections, the author must provide an accurate description of how the images originated.
 
3.Retraction or/and withdrawing of reviewed and published articles
The peer-reviewed and published articles cannot be retracted or withdrawn. If the article was officially submitted and accepted by editors after screening and reviewing, the withdrawal and retraction are not possible.  Accepted articles assume that our experts and reviewers could not identify problems with merits of a submitted article. After the positive initial screening and double-blind reviewing, every article is assigned with DOI.
However, editors do understand satisfaction concerns of an author and usually ask for describing the problem for further reviewer's examination and discussion. So, the one possible option is that it can be possible to make changes within the reasonable shortest time after online publication.  Another option, an author can write another article which should provide the follow-up review of errors/mistakes in a theoretical research or empirical model in the previously published article.
For more details please read terms and conditions which you officially accept when you send your articles to the editors' emails. It is a responsibility of an author to read instruction, conditions, and terms before the submission of an article.  These terms make retraction or removal impossible. Only editors and publisher make decisions after receiving the article regarding rejection, further update or publishing.
Information regarding the retraction and withdrawal conditions are available in the following sections of the core official page of the journal:
- the section "Publication ethics"
- the section  "Terms and Conditions"
- the section "Guide to Authors"
Policies on retraction and withdrawal

As a publisher, we strive to prevent the occurrence of occasional and limited cases of retraction and withdrawal of the published articles. As the costs of securing retraction and withdrawal are high for the publisher. Effective screening, peer-reviewing, verifying authorship, and other preventive procedures usually help to minimize such rare cases in the publishing practice. Below are the important rules for retraction and withdrawal policies of the PRADEC Publishing. These approaches and rules may be revised, supplemented, amended, etc.

Article retraction

The publisher will follow the selected standards which have been developed by a number of library and scholarly bodies. Reasons for retraction can include infringements of ethical codes, multiple submission, false claims of authorship, plagiarism, fraudulent, need to correct errors in submission or publication, other reasons as well. The publisher recognizes the retraction as an occasional feature in the academic publishing.

The following actions will be made under retraction policy:
- A retraction note titled “Retraction: [article title]” will be published in the separate article at the end of the related online issue
- In the HTML version will the record [near the title] which can be e.g. as 'RETRACTED'
- The PDF version of the retracted article can be preserved with some special note at the beginning of the article
- The DOI and HTML links will be preserved

Article removal and/or withdrawal

Article after the publication is not subject to removal, except for the sole discretion of the publisher. When editors screen, review and publish the article online or/end in print the article cannot be withdrawn until the decision of editors and publisher. The published articles go immediately to indexing archives and DOI depositories.

Full rights for the removal of the publication of the article remain to the publisher. Retraction or removal of published article can arise in very rear and exceptional circumstances. Usually, it takes a long time to make a deeper analysis, examination of reasons and negotiations.

Online submission

Corresponding author must fill in and sign the Declaration of contribution (in case there are two authors or more) which should be submitted together with manuscript using the Online Submission form.

Indexing

The journal is indexed/registered/covered by the following services:

Academic Journals Database, AgEcon Search, BASE, Bazekon, CEEOL, CEJSH, EBSCO Discovery Service, EBSCO Business Source Elite, EBSCO Business Source Premier, ERIH PLUS, ProQuest (Business Premium Collection), E-International Scientific Research Journal Consortium (E-ISRJC), Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek EZB (Regensburg University Library), EconBiz, e-LIBRARY.RU, DOAJ, Gale, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Libsearch, Open J-Gate, RePEc, ResearchGate, SCOPUS (2013-2018), Ulrich’s Periodicals Directory, VSL Open,  The German National Library of Science and Technology (TIB) ‒ Leibniz Information Centre for Science and Technology and University Library, Scilit, Open Access Library (OALib), ResearchBib, Web of Science Core Collection (Emerging Sources Citation Index), Web of Science Specialist Collection- CAB Abstracts, Zeitschriftendatenbank (ZDB) [The German National Serials Database].

We continue to work on indexation issue to provide international exposure of research papers published in our journals. However, sustaining in listings of top indexes imposes very high demands and special responsibility for the editors. This inevitably increases the time length needed for complex reviewing and analyzing the scientific articles received. We believe that indexation makes all articles well accessible and increases their potential impact on knowledge markets. We believe that indexation makes all articles well accessible and increases their potential impact on knowledge markets.

           

 

Call for reviewers

IMPORTANT: This note can be somehow similar to other few journals of the publisher (Prague Development Center). Therefore, the text may partially or completely coincide with the requirements in other journals - PIEB, ATI, and MHSJ. If you are interested in reviewing articles for PRADEC journals, we would like to invite your participation. Manuscript reviewers are vital to the publications process.

Call for reviewers

The high-quality peer-review process is necessary for establishing the reputation of every scientific journal. Due to the increasing number of submissions, BEH Editorial Board announces the call for reviewers. We are looking for academic professionals specializing in various economic and finance areas. Therefore, if you would like to share your professional opinion and have an impact on BEH development please fill in the survey and send it to publications@pradec.eu.

Requirements

- Possess a doctoral degree in economics/finance or related discipline;

- Be fluent in academic English;

- Hold an academic affiliation;

- Work effectively under tight deadlines;

-To be selected as a reviewer, the candidate should have published articles in peer-reviewed journals. The experience of publishing of research papers facilitates producing a thorough review. The previous peer-reviewing experience is not a must though valuable.

What do we offer?

Reviewing is voluntary. Publisher does not offer paid options to reviewers whilst it implements the open-access and affordable fee business model for authors. However, the publisher can offer credits to reviewers depending on their contribution and scale of participation.

Terms and conditions

The author and co-authors of the article strictly commit to the policy of editors by accepting these terms and conditions

  • Authors are responsible to read and accept fee (215 euro) payment obligations of the targeted journal. The website has clear information about publication fees and payment terms. When paper accepted and published the author is obliged to fulfill his/ her fee payment obligations in the shortest time after the invoice issued.
  • The primary version of the journal is the online version. Therefore, we do not send a printed copy to the author(s) of the published article. Publisher does not make profits via subscription or sales of print copies. The publisher offers the full content for free access to the public and without restrictions. 
  • All rules and requirements relevant to the chosen type of submission are read and understood. Sending submission means accepted by the author/submitter all responsibility related to editorial and publishing conditions.
  • Submission technical requirements are read and accepted in designing and preparing the research paper
  • Please note that scientific editing might change the format and correct the writing to make it conventional with editorial policy.
  • Responsibility for facts and opinions presented in the contents of journals, electronic and/or printed rests exclusively with the authors, other submitters if there is relevance. Their interpretations do not necessarily reflect the views of publisher or editors, affiliated or partnering with journals and with authors institutions.
  • F.A.Q. must be visited if there is an additional reason in clarifying editorial policy. The editors can contact editors via email when it is accepted
  • Neither the publisher nor the editors can be held responsible for errors or any consequences arising from the use of information contained in this journal.
  • Rejected manuscripts will not be returned to the author.
  • The submitted article after evaluation can be published in elaborating/projecting online issues which differ ahead/or back from the submission date up to 3 consequent issues or 6 months interval. 
  • The version of an article which is published online is considered the final and complete version. Even though it is possible to correct this version, our policy (in common with other publishers) is not to do so, except in very limited circumstances. When an author wishes to update the published paper it can be possible within 4 weeks after publication. 
  • Article after the publication is not subject to removal, except for the sole discretion of the publisher. When editors screen, review and publish the article online or/end in print the article cannot be withdrawn until the decision of editors and publisher. The published articles go immediately to indexing archives and DOI depositories. 
  • Full rights for the removal of the publication of the article remain to the publisher. Retraction or removal of published article can arise in very rear and exceptional circumstances. Usually, it takes a long time to make a deeper analysis, examination of reasons and negotiations.
  • After receiving of the article editors and publisher usually publish immediately online the metadata. After screening and reviewing the full article can be published. The time length between submission and publication of metadata and the full article can be different and make hours, days or months. All this process is usually related to merits, quality of the paper, internal editorial processes, other factors. When necessary, the editors can issue proof of acceptance to the applied author.
  • The author is responsible for avoiding multiple submissions of the same article to other journals. PRADEC editors can charge authors for additional fees when it will be found that similar article was published in parallel. We can contact and inform the relevant journals about multiple practices of the author. When there are signs and suspicions about duplicate submission behaviour of the authors the publisher monitors periodically online during 12 weeks.
  • Website content, information, or terms and conditions may be revised without formal notice. We cannot guarantee that this website will be updated on a regular basis or otherwise provide the most current or accurate information that may be available.
  • No part of the material protected by this copyright notice may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission from the copyright owner.