Applied Technologies and Innovations

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Vol. 7 issue 2

Paper
Author
N
Igor Sobenin, Irina Andrianova, Viktoriya Ionova, Vasily Karagodin, Alexander Orekhov,
1
Augustine Oseloka Ibegbu, Zubair Chegede Danjuma, Wilson Oliver Hamman, Uduak Emmanuel Umana, Daniel Ikyembe, Sunday Abraham Musa,
2
Nina Khachiyants, Kye Y. Kim,
3
Asilbek Gaybullaev, Saidakhror Kariev,
4
Biljana Gveroska, Jugoslav Ziberoski,
5
Dimitar Tyanev, Antoniya Tyaneva,
6

ATI is peer-reviewed international research journal. ATI covers continuum of subjects related to applied sciences. Papers for consideration could source from domains of physics, chemistry, biology, technology and engineering, electronics, science and education, and other applied technology and innovation domains.

e-ISSN (online): 1804-4999

ISSN (print): 1804-1191

OPEN ACCESS ONLINE JOURNAL

Aims and scope

ATI is peer-reviewed international research journal. ATI covers continuum of subjects related to applied sciences. Papers for consideration could source from domains of physics, chemistry, biology, technology and engineering, electronics, science and education, and other non-economic and natural sciences domains.

Editorial interest to research articles covers broad spectrum of areas and industries where various types and classes of technologies emerge and develop. It is expected that research articles should contribute original thoughts and reasoning on understanding of emerging and established technologies

These are some examples of technology fields where the researchers develop their analysis: 

- Information and communication technologies

- Medical and healthcare technologies

- Engineering and design technologies

- Education technologies

- Applied technologies in various industries of economy and production

Papers accepted undergo quality control by Editorial board and peer reviewers. All research articles submitted to ATI undergo peer review process, based on initial editor screening and anonymous expertise of reviewers. Articles previously published, those under consideration by another journal, and those with a pre-existing copyright may not be submitted. Author must ensure that about half of the paper contents or core idea has not been published anywhere else. In other words authors should prove the considerable adjustment made and value added in their submissions.

Given publications should have research character and must be based on principles of scientific and a professional etiquette. The final decision on inclusion of paper will be made by Editorial Board. Editorial Board reserves its right to make technical and scientific editing. In case of not accepting the Board does not provide reviews and comments but resolution on publication.

Profile

ATI belongs to those research periodicals that stick to open access model. The journal follows funding model that does not charge readers or their institutions for electronic access.  In other words, we provide to readers the free online access to read and download scientific articles. This model provides greater reach of interested readers to the published articles.

In the beginning all volumes appear first as a list with names of articles and authors. At this stage the articles can have relevant abstracts and keywords, but not a pdf documents in a final version. In this phase, papers were only selected selected and are pending for review and other editorial procedures. Articles in pdf are available for download only after final updating - when they already passed the whole editorial process and are agreed with the authors. When this process end, the link becomes active and pdf available for download.

Important note for authors: Until the volume 9 (issue 4), the journals was published equally in electronic and hard print formats. Since that volume the main publication format is electronic/online. Publisher does not make profits via subscription or sales of print copies. Publisher offers the full content for free access to the public and without restrictions. 

Editors

Publishing Editor

Prague Development Center, Czech Republic

EDITORIAL BOARD

Chief Editor

Libor Beneš, Czech Technical University in Prague; Czech Republic

Associate Editors

Martin Rusek, Charles University in Prague; Czech Republic
 
Maxim Puchnin, Czech Tecnnical University in Prague; Czech Republic

Advisory Council

Dele Braimoh, Delbra Innovative Consultancy, South Africa 
 
Monika Frania, University of Silesia in Katowice, Poland 
 
Amit Chaudhry, University Institute of Engineering and Technology, Technology Panjab University, India
 
Jiri Donat, 10EQS: Telecommunications, Media and Technology (TMT), Czech Republic
 
Dogan Guven, International University in Geneva, Switzerland
 
Mari Carmen Caldeiro Pedreira, Universidad Pública de Navarra, Spain
 
Radka Havova, Technology Center, Academy of Science of Czech Republic 
 
Tamás Bokor, Corvinus University of Budapest, Hungary
 
Ivo Hlavatý, VŠB - Technical University Ostrava, Czech Republic
 
Antonín Kříž, West Bohemia University, Czech Republic
 
Martin Novak, Jan Evangelista Purkyně University, Czech Republic
 
Miroslav Píška, University of Technology Brno, Czech Republic
 
Mohammad Chowdhury, Dhaka University of Engineering and Technology, Gazipur, Bangladesh
 
Nail Kashapov, Kazan Federal University, Russia
 
Zeeshan Nawaz, Global Engineering Company. Member, Gasification Research Lab., University of Engineering and Technology, Pakistan
 
Bindeshwar Singh, Kamla Nehru Institute of Technology
 
Pavel Švanda, University of Pardubice, Czech Republic 
 
Dalibor Vojtěch, University of Chemistry and Technology, Czech Republic
Guide to authors

Sample article template

  • Please read the following guidelines and use the ATI_article_submission_format for submission of your paper since only articles formatted accordingly may be accepted. This sample template can help you  avoid mistakes in formatting process of your original article. Do not send us articles in other formats (e.g., pdfs). Improper formatted articles will not be considered for screening and review process. We made this basic template to save your time in reading detailed instruction and guidance.

Screening, editorial analysis and peer-review procedures

  • All articles submitted to ATI undergo screening and followed with a peer-reviewing  process. 
  • The corresponding author should send the formatted article and necessary attachments through the Online submission form.
  • The author who submits the manuscript for publication accepts the responsibility of notifying all co-authors of the manuscript being submitted. The corresponding author must fill in and sign the ATI_declaration_of_contribution-author (in case there are two authors or more), which should be submitted together with the manuscript. 
  • After initial screening, the titles and abstracts of the articles, which receive positive evaluation, will be published online. 
  • Every article proceeds double-blind peer-review analysis by editorial and external experts. The submitted paper is reviewed by at least two independent reviewers (outside of the authors' affiliated entity). The reviews are in written form and contain a clear referees' statements concerning paper's publishing approval or its rejection. Reviewers should evaluate the quality of an article based both on established criteria and own views of experts. A reviewer is expected to fill the review form and send to the editorial department.

Quality control

  • Papers accepted undergo quality control by Editorial board and peer reviewers. All research articles in these journals undergo peer review process, based on initial editor screening and anonymous expertise of reviewers. Articles previously published, those under consideration by another journal, and those with a pre-existing copyright may not be submitted. An author must ensure that about half of the paper contents or core idea has not been published anywhere else.  In other words, authors should prove the considerable adjustment made and value added in their submissions.

Language

  • Articles must be written in English.

Title

  • Concise and informative. Avoid abbreviations.

Author names and affiliations

  • Full names should be provided. Please indicate affiliations of the author. Indicate the authors' affiliation addresses below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the Author's name and in front of the appropriate address.

Contacts

  • Ensure that telephone and fax numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address.

Abstract

  • A concise abstract should briefly state the purpose of the research and the main results. An abstract must be presented in English and separate from the article, so it must be able to stand alone.

Graphs (figures or charts)

  • Graphics should be done in MS Word/Excel and must be editable. Do not put "uneditable" figures/charts/tables made as photos/images of originally derived charts or tables. Use "Arial Narrow" font for constructing charts.

Tables

  • Tables should be numbered consecutively in the text in Arabic numerals and printed on separate sheets. Any manuscript which does not conform to the above instructions may be returned for the necessary revision before publication.

Footnotes

  • The use of footnotes should be kept to a minimum and numbered consecutively throughout the text with superscript Arabic numerals.

References

  • References to publications should be as follows: “Nelson (1992) noted that...” or “This problem has been studied previously (e.g., Smith et al., 1969)”.
  • The author should make sure that there is a strict one-to-one correspondence between the names and years in the text and those on the list. The list of references should appear at the end of the main text. It should be double spaced and listed in alphabetical order by author's name.
  • Examples of what references has to look like:
    • For monographs
      • MILTA, 2010. Lithuanian Innovation Strategy for the Year 2010-2020. Agency for Science.
      • Eurostat, 2051. European Commission, Eurostat.
      • CREST, 2007. OMC Policy Mix Review Report, Country Report. Lithuania. June 2007. EU, Coordinating the Research Framework Programme and the Structural Funds to support Research and Development.
      • Revuelta F.I., Esnaola G. (Eds.), 2013. Videojuegos en redes sociales. Perspectivas del edutaiment y la pedagogía lúdica en el aula. Barcelona: Laertes.
    • For contributions to collective works
      • Dillenbourg P., Järvelä S., Fischer, F., 2009. "The evolution of research on computer-supported collaborative learning: From design to orchestration", In: Balacheff N., Ludvigsen S., de Jong T. et al. (Eds.), Technology-Enhanced Learning. Principles and products, pp.3-19.
    • For journals
      • Büyüközkan G., Çifçi G., Güleryüz S., 2011. "Strategic analysis of healthcare service quality using fuzzy AHP methodology", Journal of Expert Systems with Applications, Vol.38(8), pp.9407-9424
      • Chatti M.A., Agustiawan M.R., Jarke M., Specht M., 2010. "Toward a personal learning environment framework", International Journal of Virtual and Personal Learning Environments, Vol.1(4), pp.66-85
      • Chen M.K. and Wang S., 2010. "The critical factors of success for information service industry in developing international market: Using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) approach", Journal of Expert Systems with Applications, Vol.37, No.1, pp.694-704
    • For bulletins
      • ECB, 2004., “Labor productivity developments in the euro area: Aggregate trends and sectoral patterns”, ECB Monthly Bulletin, July.

      Submission fee payment

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    • Standard submission & service fee is - 160 Euro (plus VAT, when applicable).
    • The fee is due to pay only after receiving the positive review and formal acceptance letter from the editor.
    • The fee provides compensation for a range services related to expertise, scientific and technical editing, printing, electronic storing and web-managing. All papers are printed online (with corresponding online ISSN) and in print form (with corresponding Print ISSN).
    • The major  version of ATI publication is online (electronic) with eISSN 1804-4999
    • The fee is not a subject to guarantee the sending printed copy via standard airmail.  

    Payments options

    • You will receive an invoice with several payment methods you can choose after the letter of acceptance.

    Important

    • Payments must be done only after the final letter of acceptance of a paper for publication.

    Electronic submission

Publication ethics
Publication ethics
 
Editors of Business and Economic Horizons (BEH) are committed to the highest standards of ethics in academic research and publishing. Ethical conduct in both writing and editing is necessary in order to provide the readers with accurate, useful and reliable scientific material, as well as to appropriately honor the credits of particular researchers and authors. Therefore, compliance with the following standards of publication ethics is required of all contributors of BEH, including authors, reviewers and editors. Violation of any of these standards by an author is a basis for rejection of his or her paper submitted for publication.
 
I.  Authorship and Co-authorship
 
1. Authorship
 
Authorship credit should be based on meeting the following criteria: 1) substantial contribution to paper concept or design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; 2) drafting the article or reviewing and introducing fundamental changes in it; 3) final approval of the version to be published.
 
All persons designated as authors and co-authors should meet these criteria. As co-authors of a paper there should be identified all persons who have made significant scientific contributions to the work reported, and who therefore share responsibility its content and results. Authors should also appropriately recognize the contributions of technical staff and data professionals. All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship (e.g. financial support) should be listed in the section “Acknowledgements” (financial disclosure). Editors retain the right to request information about the contributions of each person in writing the article. 
 
Authors should also be aware that the following phenomena are the examples of scientific misconduct and must be avoided:
 
Ghostwriting -  a substantial contribution to publication has been made, without revealing author’s participation, or without being mentioned in the acknowledgments enclosed to the paper.
 
Guest authorship (honorary authorship) - the author's contribution is insignificant, despite of declaration.
 
A group of co-authors should jointly make the decision about the order in which their names are given. During manuscript submission, the submitting author must provide contact information (full name, email address, institutional affiliation and mailing address) for all of the co-authors. The author who submits the manuscript for publication accepts the responsibility of notifying all co-authors of the manuscript being submitted. The corresponding author must fill in and sign the Declaration of Contribution (in case there are two authors or more), which should be submitted together with the manuscript. 
 
All detected cases of scientific misconduct will be documented and the appropriate institutions and entities will be notified.
 
2. Sources of data and ideas
 
Authors are required to faithfully acknowledge and identify contributions of other persons to their reported work as well as clearly identify sources of both data and ideas. Authors should cite all publications that have been important in the development of the submitted study and that will guide the reader to the earlier researchers that are essential for understanding the present analysis.
 
Authors are required to make reasonable and diligent efforts to find, and then accurately cite original sources and publications. Authors should only present as reliable either personally verified or peer-reviewed sources of scientific data and literature.
 
Authors must not engage in plagiarism or self-plagiarism. Plagiarism is verbatim or near-verbatim copying, or paraphrasing without due modification, of text, data, or other material containing results of another person’s work, without explicit identification of the source of such material. Similarly, self-plagiarism is replicating of the author’s own previously published text or results without acknowledgment of the source. Exercising care for publishing only original research, editors of BEH are committed to deterring plagiarism and self-plagiarism and may use special software to screen submitted manuscripts for similarity to a previously published material. The manuscripts may be screened during the whole editorial cycle, including submission process and until the final publication in an online form.
 
3. Duplicate publications
 
It is prohibited for an author to submit manuscripts describing essentially the same research to more than one journal of primary publication unless it is a resubmission of a manuscript rejected for or withdrawn from publication.
 
II. Quality of Published Work
 
1. Comprehensiveness of research and publications
 
An author is required organize his or her paper so that it provides a well-rounded description of the examined issue.
Fragmentation of research reports excessively consumes journal space and unduly complicates literature research, therefore authors are expected to avoid it whenever possible.
 
2. Conflicts of interest
 
Conflict of interest is a situation in which the process of research and publication may be corrupted or its results may be biased because of some other interests of its participants. It may concern any one or more of the participants of research and publication process – the author, the reviewer, or the editor. Conflicts of interest may occur for financial (e.g. employment opportunities, fees or other compensation arrangements, beneficial ownership of stock) or other reasons (e.g., personal relationships, pursuit of academic career, intellectual passion, political involvement etc.) that can reasonably be expected to influence motivations or results of actions of participants of the publication process.
 
Conflicts of interest constitute a serious threat to the integrity and objectivity of both scientific research and publishing. Therefore best practice for authors, reviewers and editors alike, is to avoid conflicts of interest situations whenever possible.
 
All participants in publication process who are in the situation of a conflict of interest must disclose this fact. Of special importance is that if the original research study reported in the manuscript or the preparation of the manuscript was supported by one or more grants, the title and number of the grant(s) and the name of the institution(s) that provided the grants or financial support to conduct, analyze or write-up the study, must be specified in the manuscript.
 
Editors of BEH may use information disclosed in conflict-of-interest and financial-support statements as a basis for editorial decisions. The corresponding author must either notify the editor at the time of submission that there is no conflict of interest to declare, or fairly and effectively communicate all conflicts of interest, which will then be acknowledged in the published article.
 
III. Reviewing and Editing
 
1. Reviewing
 
Business and Economic Horizons is a peer-reviewed journal. Submitted papers and short communication are evaluated by independent referees or Editorial Board members specialized in the article field. Paper reviews evaluate submitted material’s scientific significance and novelty, define it’s accordance to general journal profile, scrutinize its content for compliance with the journal’s publication ethics. After the refereeing process is complete, the paper may be rejected, returned to the author for revisions, or accepted for publication. 
 
2. Editing
 
The authors are responsible for the contents of their paper or short communication. Editors may request an author, when considered necessary, to elaborate on the content or technical details of the paper. Scientific editing might change format and correct the writing to render it compliant with editorial policy of the journal. 
Pictures and graphs are special subject to editorial consideration, as their quantity should be optimal and only necessary in the content of papers. Pictures, graphs and textual content alike are subject to ethical standards concerning authorship and integrity. Additionally, whenever images are included in accounts of research process or results, or in data collections, the author must provide an accurate description of how the images originated.
 
3.Retraction or/and withdrawing of reviewed and published articles
 
The peer-reviewed and published articles cannot be retracted or withdrawn. If the article was officially submitted and accepted by editors after screening and reviewing, the withdrawal and retraction are not possible.  Accepted articles assume that our experts and reviewers could not identify problems with merits of a submitted article. After the positive initial screening and double-blind reviewing, every article is assigned with DOI.
 
However, editors do understand satisfaction concerns of an author and usually ask for describing the problem for further reviewer's examination and discussion. So, the one possible option is that it can be possible to make changes within the reasonable shortest time after online publication.  Another option, an author can write another article which should provide the follow-up review of errors/mistakes in a theoretical research or empirical model in the previously published article.
 
For more details please read terms and conditions which you officially accept when you send your articles to the editors' emails. It is a responsibility of an author to read instruction, conditions, and terms before the submission of an article.  These terms make retraction or removal impossible. Only editors and publisher make decisions after receiving the article regarding rejection, further update or publishing.
Information regarding the retraction and withdrawal conditions are available in the following sections of the core official page of the journal:
 
- the section "Publication ethics"
- the section  "Terms and Conditions"
- the section "Guide to Authors"
Policies on retraction and withdrawal

As a publisher, we strive to prevent the occurrence of occasional and limited cases of retraction and withdrawal of the published articles. As the costs of securing retraction and withdrawal are high for the publisher. Effective screening, peer-reviewing, verifying authorship, and other preventive procedures usually help to minimize such rare cases in the publishing practice. Below are the important rules for retraction and withdrawal policies of the PRADEC Publishing. These approaches and rules may be revised, supplemented, amended, etc.

Article retraction

The publisher will follow the selected standards which have been developed by a number of library and scholarly bodies. Reasons for retraction can include infringements of ethical codes, multiple submission, false claims of authorship, plagiarism, fraudulent, need to correct errors in submission or publication, other reasons as well. The publisher recognizes the retraction as an occasional feature in the academic publishing.

The following actions will be made under retraction policy:

- A retraction note titled “Retraction: [article title]” will be published in the separate article at the end of the related online issue

- In the HTML version will the record [near the title] which can be e.g. as 'RETRACTED'

- The PDF version of the retracted article can be preserved with some special note at the beginning of the article

- The DOI and HTML links will be preserved

Article removal and/or withdrawal

Article after the publication is not subject to removal, except for the sole discretion of the publisher. When editors screen, review and publish the article online or/end in print the article cannot be withdrawn until the decision of editors and publisher. The published articles go immediately to indexing archives and DOI depositories.

Full rights for the removal of the publication of the article remain to the publisher. Retraction or removal of published article can arise in very rear and exceptional circumstances. Usually, it takes a long time to make a deeper analysis, examination of reasons and negotiations.

Online submission

Corresponding author must fill in and sign the Declaration of contribution (in case there are two authors or more) which should be submitted together with manuscript using the Online Submission form.

Indexing
The journal is indexed/registered/covered by the following services:
Academic Journals Database, BASE,  EBSCO Discovery Service, EBSCO Applied Science & Technology Source, EBSCO Computers and Applied Sciences, WordCat, E-International Scientific Research Journal Consortium (E-ISRJC), e-LIBRARY.RU, DOAJ (2010-2016), Gale, Google scholar, Libsearch, Open J-Gate, ResearchGate,  Ulrich’s Periodicals Directory, VSL Open, JournalSeek, Scirus, Research Bible, Knowledge Network, Academic Publishing Platforms, CiteFactor, ERIH PLUS, Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek EZB (Regensburg University Library), The German National Library of Science and Technology (TIB) ‒ Leibniz Information Centre for Science and Technology and University Library, Scilit, Open Access Library (OALib), Thomson Web of Science - CAB Abstracts.
We continue to work on indexation issue to provide international exposure of research papers published in our journals. However, sustaining in listings of top indexes imposes very high demands and special responsibility for the editors. This inevitably increases the time length needed for complex reviewing and analyzing the scientific articles received. We believe that indexation makes all articles well accessible and increases their potential impact on knowledge markets.
Call for reviewers

IMPORTANT: This note can be somehow similar to other few journals of the publisher (Prague Development Center). Therefore, the text may partially or completely coincide with the requirements in other journals - PIEB, BEH, and MHSJ. If you are interested in reviewing articles for PRADEC journals, we would like to invite your participation. Manuscript reviewers are vital to the publications process.

Call for reviewers

The high-quality peer-review process is necessary for establishing the reputation of every scientific journal. ATI invites experienced scholars and professionals specializing in various domains of natural science, technology, applied natural and social disciplines to collaborate as reviewers for our journal.

The charge of reviewers is to evaluate the quality, relevance, and merit of submitted papers. Reviews must be as complete and detailed as possible and contain clear opinions about strengths, weaknesses, relevance, and importance to the field. Preferably, reviewers should consider themselves as mentors to the author(s) and comments should be specific and constructive and suggestions should be intended to enhance the manuscript.

Therefore, if you would like to share your professional opinion and have an impact on ATI development please fill in the survey and send it to publications@pradec.eu.

Requirements

- Possess an academic degree in engineering, technology, management, and other applied disciplines;

- Be fluent in academic English;

- Hold an academic affiliation;

- Work effectively under tight deadlines;

- To be selected as a reviewer, the candidate should have published articles in peer-reviewed journals. The experience of publishing of research papers facilitates producing a thorough review. The previous peer-reviewing experience is not a must though valuable.

What do we offer?

Reviewing is voluntary. Publisher does not offer paid options to reviewers whilst it implements the open-access and affordable fee business model for authors. We are open to cooperation with reviewers who support the concept and values of our journal.
Terms and conditions

The author and co-authors of the article strictly commit to the policy of editors by accepting these terms and conditions

  • Authors are responsible to read and accept fee payment obligations of the targeted journal. The website has clear information about publication fees and payment terms. When paper accepted and published the author is obliged to fulfill his/ her fee payment obligations in the shortest time after the invoice issued.
  • The primary version of the journal is the online version. Therefore, we do not send a printed copy to the author(s) of the published article. Publisher does not make profits via subscription or sales of print copies. The publisher offers the full content for free access to the public and without restrictions.
  • All rules and requirements relevant to the chosen type of submission are read and understood. Sending submission means accepted by the author/submitter all responsibility related to editorial and publishing conditions.
  • Submission technical requirements are read and accepted in designing and preparing the research paper
  • Please note that scientific editing might change the format and correct the writing to make it conventional with editorial policy.
  • Responsibility for facts and opinions presented in the contents of journals, electronic and/or printed rests exclusively with the authors, other submitters if there is relevance. Their interpretations do not necessarily reflect the views of publisher or editors, affiliated or partnering with journals and with authors institutions.
  • F.A.Q. must be visited if there is an additional reason in clarifying editorial policy. The editors can contact editors via email when it is accepted
  • Neither the publisher nor the editors can be held responsible for errors or any consequences arising from the use of information contained in this journal.
  • Rejected manuscripts will not be returned to the author.
  • The submitted article after evaluation can be published in elaborating/projecting online issues which differ ahead/or back from the submission date up to 3 consequent issues or 6 months interval.
  • The version of an article which is published online is considered the final and complete version. Even though it is possible to correct this version, our policy (in common with other publishers) is not to do so, except in very limited circumstances. When an author wishes to update the published paper it can be possible within 4 weeks after publication.
  • Article after the publication is not subject to removal, except for the sole discretion of the publisher. When editors screen, review and publish the article online or/end in print the article cannot be withdrawn until the decision of editors and publisher. The published articles go immediately to indexing archives and DOI depositories.
  • Full rights for the removal of the publication of the article remain to the publisher. Retraction or removal of published article can arise in very rear and exceptional circumstances. Usually, it takes a long time to make a deeper analysis, examination of reasons and negotiations.
  • After receiving of the article editors and publisher usually publish immediately online the metadata. After screening and reviewing the full article can be published. The time length between submission and publication of metadata and the full article can be different and make hours, days or months. All this process is usually related to merits, quality of the paper, internal editorial processes, other factors. When necessary, the editors can issue proof of acceptance to the applied author.
  • The author is responsible for avoiding multiple submissions of the same article to other journals. PRADEC editors can charge authors for additional fees when it will be found that similar article was published in parallel. We can contact and inform the relevant journals about multiple practices of the author. When there are signs and suspicions about duplicate submission behaviour of the authors the publisher monitors periodically online during 12 weeks.
  • Website content, information, or terms and conditions may be revised without formal notice. We cannot guarantee that this website will be updated on a regular basis or otherwise provide the most current or accurate information that may be available.
  • No part of the material protected by this copyright notice may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission from the copyright owner.